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Bain BJ, Clark DM, Lampert IA. Bone Marrow Pathology. Oxford Blackwell. 2nd Ed. 1996. Scientific publications, London.
Brunning RD and McKenna RW. Tumors of the bone marrow. 1994. Atlas of tumor pathology,
3d series, fascicle 9. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Washington.
Foucar K. Bone marrow pathology. 1995. In Integrative hematopathology. ASCP Press.
GeneralitiesBauermeister DE. Quantification of bone marrow reticulin - a normal range. Am J Clin Pathol 1971. 56: 24-31
Brown DC and Gatter KC. The bone marrow trephine biopsy: a review of normal histology. Histopathology 1993. 22: 411-422
Erber WN et al. Antigen retrieval by microwave oven heating for immunohistochemical analysis of bone marrow trephine biopsies. Pathology 1996. 28: 45-50
O'Donnell LR et al. Immunohistochemical reference ranges for B-lymphocytes in bone marrow biopsy paraffin sections. Am J Clin Pathol 1995. 104: 517-523
Reactive changesDavis BR and Zauli G. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection on haematopoiesis.
Baillieres Clin Haematol 1995. 8:113-30
Diebold J et al. Bone marrow manifestations of infections and systemic diseases observed in bone marrow trephine biopsy. Review. Histopathology 2000. 37: 199-211
Karcher DS and Frost AR. The bone marrow in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related disease. Morphology and clinical correlation. Am J Clin Pathol 1991. 95: 63-71
Thiele J et al. Incidence of apoptosis in HIV-myelopathy , myelodysplastic syndromes and non-specific inflammatory lesions of the bone marrow. Histopathology 1997. 30: 307-311
Thiele J et al. Focal lymphoid aggregates (nodules) in bone marrow biopsies: differentiation between benign hyperplasia and malignant lymphoma - a practical guideline. J Clin Pathol 1999. 52: 294-300
Classification of hematological malignancies
Harris NL et al. The World Health Organization Classification of Hematological Malignancies Report of the Clinical Advisory Committee Meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. Mod Pathol 2000. 13: 193-207
Hauke RJ and Armitage JO. A new approach to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Intern Med 2000. 39: 197-208
Lymphoma assessment in bone marrow biopsy. Molecular biologyBrinckmann R et al. Specificity of PCR-based clonality analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements for the detection of bone marrow involvement by low-grade B-cell lymphomas. J Pathol 2000. 190: 55-60
Crotty PL et al. Morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluation of bone marrow involvement in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diagn Mol Pathol 1998. 7: 90-95
Gebhard S et al. Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma in
paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies: a comparative study. Histopathology. In press.
Nagasaka T et al. The use of archival bone marrow specimens in detecting B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas using polymerase chain reaction methods. Leuk Lymphoma 2000. 36: 347-352
B-cell lymphomaChetty R et al. Immunohistochemistry in apparently normal bone marrow trephine specimens from patients with nodal follicular lymphoma. J Clin Pathol 1995. 48: 1035-1038
Criel A et al. Small B cell NHL and their leukemic counterpart: differences in subtyping and assessment of leukemic spread. Leukemia 1996. 10: 848-853
Gala JL et al. A panel of antibodies for the immunostaining of Bouin's fixed bone marrow trephine biopsies. J Clin Pathol 1997. 50: 521-524
Henrique R et al. Guidelines for subtyping small B-cell lymphomas in bone marrow biopsies. Virchows Arch 1999. 435: 549-558
Hodges GF et al. Bone marrow involvement in large-cell lymphoma. Prognostic implications of discordant disease. Am J Clin Pathol 1994. 101: 305-311
Hounieu H et al. Hairy cell leukemia. Diagnosis of bone marrow involvement in paraffin-embedded sections with monoclonal antibody DBA.44. Am J Clin Pathol 1992. 98: 26-33
Juneja SK et al. Value of bilateral bone marrow biopsy specimens in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Pathol 1991. 44: 350-351
Labouryie E et al. Intrasinusoidal bone marrow involvement by splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes: a helpful immunohistologic feature. Mod Pathol 1997. 10: 1015-1020
Luoni M et al. Bone marrow biopsy for the staging of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma:bilateral or unilateral trephine biopsy? Tumori 1995. 81: 410-103
Meugé-Moraw C et al. Follicular dendritic cells in bone marrow lymphoproliferative diseases: an immunohistochemical study including a new paraffin-resistant monoclonal antibody, DR53. Histopathology 1996. 28: 341-347
Molica S et al. Clinical and prognostic evaluation of bone marrow infiltration (biopsy versus aspirate)
in early chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A single center study. Haematologica 1997. 82: 286-290
Montserrat E et al. Bone marrow assessment in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: aspirate or biopsy? A comparative study of 258 patients. Br J Haematol 1996. 93: 111-116
Pezzella F et al. The diagnosis of low-grade peripheral B-cell neoplasms in bone marrow trephines.
Br J Haematol 2000. 108: 369-376
Pittaluga S et al. Bone marrow trephines. Findings in patients with hairy cell leukaemia before and after treatment. Histopathology 1994. 25: 129-135
Pittaluga S et al. How reliable is histologic examination of bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens for the staging of non-Hodgkin lymphoma? A study of hairy cell leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma involvement of the bone marrow trephine specimen by histologic, immunohistochemical, and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Am J Clin Pathol 1999. 111: 179-184
Skinnider BF et al. Bone marrow involvement in T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma.
Am J Clin Pathol 1997. 108: 570-578
Zengin N et al. The significance of the bone marrow biopsy pattern in chronic lymphocytic leukemia:
a prognostic dilemma. Am J Hematol 1999. 62: 208-211
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma
Bartlett NL and Longo DL. T-small lymphocyte disorders. Semin Hematol 1999. 36:164-170
Gaulard P et al. Bone marrow histologic and immunohistochemical findings in peripheral
T-cell lymphoma: a study of 38 cases. Human Pathol 1991. 22: 331-338
Lamy T and Loughran TP. Current concepts: large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
Blood reviews 1999. 13: 230-240
Marti RM et al. Utility of bone marrow and liver biopsies for staging cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Int J Dermatol 1996. 35: 450-454
Anaplastic large cell lymphomaFraga M et al. Bone marrow involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical detection of minimal disease and its prognostic significance. Am J Clin Pathol 1995. 103: 82-89
Hodgkin's diseaseMunker R et al. Bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's disease: an analysis of 135 consecutive cases. German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1995. 13: 403-409
Powles T and Bower M. HIV-associated Hodgkin's disease. Int J STD AIDS 2000. 11: 492-494
Spector N et al. Clinical factors predictive of bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's disease.
Leuk Lymphoma 1997. 26: 171-176
Multiple myeloma and other gammopathiesBartl R et Frisch B. Clinical significance of bone marrow biopsy and plasma cell morphology in MM and MGUS. Pathol Biol 1999. 47:158.168
Chilosi M et al. CD138/syndecan-1: a useful immunohistochemical marker of normal and neoplastic plasma cells on routine trephine bone marrow biopsies. Mod Pathol 1999. 12: 1101-1106
Peterson LC et al. Application of the immunoperoxidase technique to bone marrow trephine biopsies in the classification of patients with monoclonal gammopathies.
Am J Clin Pathol 1986. 85: 688-693
Sailer M et al. Prognostic relevance of a histologic classification system applied in bone marrow biopsies from patients with multiple myeloma: a histopathological evaluation of biopsies from 153 untreated patients. Eur J Haematol 1995. 54: 137-146
Myeloproliferatives DiseasesBilgrami S and Greenberg BR. Polycythemia Rubra Vera. Semin Oncol 1995. 22: 307-326
Dickstein JI and Vardiman JW. Issues in the pathology and diagnosis of the chronic myeloproliferative disorders and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Am J Clin Path 1993. 99: 513-525
Dickstein JI and Vardiman JW. Hematopathologic findings in the myeloproliferative disorders.
Semin Oncol 1995. 22: 355-373
Georgii A et al. The histopathology of chronic myeloproliferative diseases. Bailleres Clin Haematol 1998. 11: 721-749
Baur AS et al. CD34/QBEND10 immunostaining in bone marrow biopsies: an additional parameter for the diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndromes.
Eur J Haematol 2000. 64: 71.79
Bennett JM et al. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes.
Br J Haematol 1982. 51: 189-199
Gallagher A et al. The molecular basis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologia 1997. 82: 191-204
Gardais J. Dyshaemopoiesis in adults: a pratical classification for diagnosis and management.
Leuk Res 2000. 24: 641-651
Kampmeier P et al. Issues in the pathology of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1992. 6: 501-522
Lambertenghi Deliliers G et al. The diagnostic and prognostic value of bone marrow immunostaining in myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma 1998. 28: 231-239
Maschek H et al. Myelofibrosis in primary myelodysplastic syndromes: a retrospective study of 352 patients. Eur J Haematol 1992. 48: 208-214
Maschek H et al. Hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome: incidence, morphology, cytogenetics, and prognosis. Ann Hematol 1993. 66: 117-122
Oriani A et al. Bone marrow histology and CD34 immunostaining in the prognostic evaluation of primary myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 1996. 92: 360-364
Tricot G et al. Bone marrow histology in myelodysplastic syndromes. II. Prognostic value of abnormal localization of immature precursors in MDS. Br J Haematol 1984. 58: 217-125
Acute leukaemiaChuang SS and Li CY. Useful panel of antibodies for the classification of acute leukemia by immunohistochemical methods in bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens.
Am J Clin Pathol 1997. 107: 410-418
Pileri SA et al. Acute leukaemia immunophenotyping in bone-marrow routine sections.
Br J Haematol 1999. 105: 394-401
Soslow RA. MIC2, TdT, Bcl-2, and CD34 expression in paraffin-embedded high-grade lymphoma /acute lymphoblastic leukemia distinguishes between distinct clinicopathologic entities.
Hum Pathol 1997. 28: 1158-1165
Toth B et al. Immunophenotyping of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens. J Clin Pathol 1999. 52: 688-692
Metastatic tumoursLazda EJ and Berry PJ. Bone marrow metastasis in Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: Pediatr Dev Pathol 1998. 1: 125-30
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Copyright 2001, The Author(s) and/or The Publisher(s)
Dr Bernard Van den Heule